Ways to conserve natural resources is a genuine effort needed on part by humans to keep the environment alive and thriving for future survival.
But before we go into details, we should know what are the natural resources and how they are available to us.
Natural resources are those essentials which are needed for living yet available free of cost.
So let us be clear about what are all the natural resources we have from nature.
1. Fresh Water
5. Rivers and lakes
Ways to conserve natural resources
Minimal and systemic use of water is essential to save fresh water. We require this water for drinking, washing and also irrigation of crops. This water is mostly available as rainwater and groundwater. Rainwater is collected lakes and rivets while some of it even reaches groundwater.
Day by day the freshwater resources are getting depleted all over the world as per reports of NASA and other eminent organizations.
So to conserve this, we need adopt methods like rainwater harvesting, preventing water pollution and also enhancement of rains by the growth of trees. Besides we need to judiciously use this water for our daily chores like drinking, washing, cooking, etc.
Also, excess water usage in agriculture has to minimize by using drip and other water delivery systems.
Pollution of rivers, the soil has to minimize as it renders water useless for human usage. Even use of pesticides and other chemicals in agriculture can lead to water pollution. Besides the release of industrial sewage into rivers and lakes should be stopped.
Where possible, rainwater harvesting has to be done as it enhances groundwater. Rainwater harvesting can be done individually at all home, farmlands and also by the government bodies.
Air: Air is another essential life commodity, and due to pollution, it gets deprived for healthy use. Hence, in highly polluted cities people use air purifiers and also sometimes buy fresh air in cans. Fresh air is present in rural areas with less pollution.
But, if this air pollution is not stopped, it could spread to all over the earth and cause havoc on human and animal life. So, conservation air includes prevention of air pollution at the faster pace. This can be done by use of electric vehicles instead of those run by fossil fuels. Treatment of industrial exhaust before being released into air etc.
3. Soil: Soil is one of the least recyclable commodities in nature. It is an uppermost layer of earth and is suitable for growth of plants and crops. But the topmost layer of soil is carried away naturally by winds and rainwater. However, the bottom rock is again converted to the soil readily. But, human-made changes can lead to drastic erosion of top layers of soil making it less fit for agriculture. To conserve soil, growing of plenty of trees and forests is essential as this can slow down the winds and floods from rivers which can carry away soil layers.
4. Forests: These are natural resources, and each nation should have at least 35% of land dedicated to the forest for a better environment. But in most countries, forests are cut off for their resources like wood, land for farming, etc. Deforestation is an important cause of the decrease in rainfall and also rise in the global temperatures. Besides, forests are home to many wild animals with thriving biodiversity.
Deforestation can lead to a decline in these animals, and their restoration can be incomplete, ineffective and time taking. So, having a large area of forest is suitable for regular rainfall, a decrease in air pollution and preservation of biodiversity. For this, governments should strictly prohibit illegal cutting down of trees in the forests and also maintain forest officers to safeguard from fires and other hazards which can decline the woods.
River and lakes: These are fresh water resources present on the surface of the earth. But with the passage of time, many rivers and lakes have been dried, and even their location and course is not existent. This happens due to many reasons like droughts, change in their route or course, encroachment of lakes, etc. Besides, their pollution by humans makes their water unsuitable for consumption. Hence, strict measures to enhance rainfall, prevent land encroachment and minimization of pollution is essential to keep them alive.
Oceans: Oceans are most significant sources of minerals, food in the form of fishes, lobsters, etc. But, due to plastic pollution and frequent spillage of oil from ships and other contamination, oceans get polluted leading to toll on the animals living there. Besides polluted rivers also merge into the sea making the matter even worst. Many large animals like whales die of too much pollution. Hence, minimization of contamination into the water can decrease ocean pollution and save marine biodiversity.
Petroleum: Petroleum is fossil fuel and has a wide scale use in modern life. But its resources are getting depleted fast and hence a need to minimize their usage has arisen. So, decrease in use of automobiles for travel, use of public transport, use of alternative sources of energy to power the engines helps to save petroleum resources.
Coal: It is called as black diamond is highly used as fuel in many industries as it is cheap and widely available. But excess use can deplete its resources.
Also, using petroleum and coal can lead to air and other sorts of pollution. So, minimal use and finding alternative sources of energy can save coal resources.
Minerals: Minerals include many metals and non-metals. Some of them are used for construction and other human activities. While few of them are used to maintain human health and treat diseases. Depriving of these minerals can problematic for health and other needs. Unlike others, there are fewer options for alternative means. Hence, the only way to conserve them is through minimal use and recycling of old products containing these minerals.
Biodiversity: This means the natural distribution of animals and plants in the environment in a mutually beneficial manner. Destruction of biodiversity occurs by excess cutting of forests, hunting of animals for fun or food, etc. This can be conserved if efforts are taken to preserve the species in extinction mode, decrease in deforestation, minimization of pollution in oceans, river, air, etc.