Corruption is a social evil where the quality of service is lost for the unaccounted benefit.
The crime is prevalent worldwide in most countries. Only the degree and extent of it varies.
Corruption types are many based on the means used for the purpose, the level, effect, and impact, etc. But since corruption is a social cause, the best way of its classification is based on its social impact.
Types of corruption
- Corruption in judiciary
- Business corruption
- Political corruption
- Corruption in government
- Corruption in law enforcement
- corruption in education
- Health care system
- Administrative corruption
Types of corruption in the judiciary: Judiciary is one of the potent systems to protect the constitution of a nation and safeguard the citizens. But due to unlimited powers, the judges in the courts are susceptible to corruption. They tend to destroy the justice and judiciary support to a person or society as a whole. The common types of corruption in the judiciary are
- Delayed justice
- Selective justice
- Voluntary harassment
- Scope for misuse and misbehavior.
Delayed justice: There is a saying “justice delayed is justice denied.” This principle is applied here by the judiciary in a few countries. The victim is allowed to suffer due to the delay in judgment. This occurs in both criminal and civil cases. The cases which have to be closed fast are dragged for prolonged periods. This leads to suffering by the persons involved in the cases. There are even cases where the common waiting for the justice undergoes severe mental stress and die of it. This delay in many ways could be due to the deliberate delaying of cases by the judges. If a case has reached the closing stage, they postpone the judgment to deliver after court holidays. For the judge, it could be a vacation. But, for those involved, it would be a nightmare as they have to spend time in anxiety with the outcome of the verdict.
Selective justice: This is an even funny way of misuse of the justice system. When there are many cases pending, they take up cases instantly to give bail or other reliefs to the rich and famous people. But, there will be many common people waiting for their case to be heard.
Voluntary harassment: This occurs when the people in the system have a political or religious inclination. They try to give orders out of their personal discomfort, past hatred, or based on their own opinions to satisfy their egos.
You may notice that some judgment would be targeted against a political party or against a religious community.
Scope for misuse and misbehavior: In some cases, judicial people try to relive a person from punishments by taking bribes. This is not a secret and the use of the right channel helps one to achieve that unless there is no public glare.
You can check this article for examples of judicial corruption in America.
Corruption in business: This is a widespread and also long-standing problem. Business people opt for corrupt practices to generate more income. They can do so by forcing the government to enact some laws in their favor. Another way is to avoid quality control so as to produce to sub-standard goods and save money. For example in the united states as per the Affordable Care Act, everyone needs to have health insurance. If not, they had to pay a penalty. So, this way law is enforced to support insurance companies. In another way, to produce sub-standard products, the lack of stringent quality control enables businessmen to sell low-quality goods. But the same company will produce a high standard product for other countries with stringent quality control laws.
Political corruption: This is the worst-case of moral corruption. Here political parties do it in a few ways like
- Appease people of freebies or subsidies
- Appease minorities
- Buy votes and mandate.
Any type of political corruption is a loss to the nation. But interestingly, not all the masses will be able to read these intentions of politicians and fall in their trap and give them votes.
Corruption in government: Those in power will resort to corruption. They do it by making scams, awarding contracts to their friends, etc. They continue this till the end of the term in office. The media can easily track and let the public know it. But since few media bodies are also corrupted, they tend to be blind to such issues and protect the governments.
Corruption in law enforcement: This relates to the corruption in police departments. This form of corruption is present in almost all countries. The police authorities accept bribes and help destroy the evidence.
Corruption in education: Education is one of the valuable needs of the common man. So, to en-cash them, there are many businessmen in the education sector. They tend to
Corruption in the health care system:
This involves improper healthcare or favor to one company or related corruption. This form of corruption is less prevalent in developed countries.
Administrative corruption: This form of corruption is similar to government corruption but is spread until the lower levels among the public servants. The officers or servants involve in bribery to perform their duties towards to common public.
Based on the consequences there are again different types of corruption like
- Those with a loss to the public
- Those with no loss to the public but for one individual or group.
- Those without any loss to others.
Let’s see in detail the 3 types
Those with the loss to the public: These are corruption cases that have a huge loss to the public. These are highly prevalent in the world as common people, and innocent people are not strong enough to question them or fight them.
For instance, a company takes up a natural resource in a country with an aim to exploit them for national benefit. Once they acquire the rights to use the resource, they don’t do it to full potential and effectively. When the government tries to question them, these people handle those officials by either providing monetary benefits and giving insane reasons. Also, they try to shift the job position of honest officials by using higher influences.
Also when there are persons driving a car or other vehicles, he must be checked for the license to do so. But in most cases, if he is found to have no license, the officials get some bribe and let him go on. There are chances that such an unlicensed driver can cause accidents to the common public. Thus here corruption affects loss to the public.
Those with no loss to the public but for one individual or group: These are cases happening to a company are a group or family when they are misused by others. Supposing a family is in benefit of or having a property and in they hired it a third person. After some years of use the third party refuses to quit the property and when questioned tries to get official support by them and keeps the family away from the property with their support.
Another instance is a girl, or someone who is raped or killed, and the police try to see that the case against the culprit fails due to lack of evidence, etc. Here the girl or her family is in pain and not the mass public.
Those with no loss to anyone else including public: These have no loss to the public. This happens only when a benefit is given to an official for performing his duty in a proper way. For instance in developing countries, the government workforce is not disciplined. They and takes months or even years to pass a file or complete a task. This process is hastened if the concerned person gives a small monetary benefit to the official. The person who gave a bribe does not lose much. But the official got some benefit which is not so huge.