Urbanization is a concept where more people tend to live in cities by leaving the rural areas. In the past many people used to live in rural areas relying on agriculture. But with improvement in technology and industrialization, more people started to move from villages into towns and then into cities. Effects of urbanization started to appear in terms of decrease in quality life, increase in pollution and other problems.
Even at present many people are moving towards cities and urbanization is in full swing.
Problems and Effect of urbanization
Urbanization and growth of cities have led to formation of human jungles. I said jungles because you will see people everywhere around, but you will know none personally. People would feel less secure in a city than what they feel in a rural place. Even if something unwanted happens to you, still you may be neglected by others around
Urbanization concentrates a large number of people in a confined place. That means the number of people per square kilometer would be more than normal. This leads to excess utilization of resources available in the place by the area’s population present. Hence, you will notice that there would be parking problems, traffic jams, water scarcity, lack of fresh air, etc.
Law and order
Law and order, in general, would be hard to maintain in an urban area than in rural areas. As mentioned earlier, the urban areas would be like human jungles. An individual is less known to others in the area. There would be significant increase in chances of violence and abuses. This is due to increased stress among people, lack of fear of law and society.
On culture and society
A person adopts a culture or society from his family, neighbors, by the people in his area or the society he lives in. Rural society is more stable than an urban area. This is because, rural people are more stagnant and adapt to the surrounding conditions. They also try to live in minimal means. While people in urban areas are more mobile and keep moving on a regular basis, they come across different cultures and lose their actual cultural identity.
Urban places have a better access to good education facilitates. However, though they impart good amount of technical and analytical knowledge to students. I believe that they impart less of moral values and ethics than their rural counterparts.
Besides, the students are less exposed to physical activity and few countries even discouraged from sports and games in the name of time for studies.
Urban life is more stressful due to air, sound and light pollution. You can notice that people in rural places go to bed early like around 8 to 9pm at max while those in urban areas tend to rest around 12AM at night.
Even they do not awake at sunrise and most of the time they eat, drink or do things in a hurry. This makes their life less natural and more stressful. Hence, people in urban areas tend to suffer more diseases and health related issues than those in rural areas.
However, the urban population has better access to medical facilitates.
The urban lifestyle encourages single or less members in a family. Since, the cost of living is high in urban areas, having more people in a family would require bigger house and other maintenance.
Where as in rural places this quite different. Rural environment encourages combined family and big family. Since, many are dependent on agriculture or other physical work, presence of more members in a family would be an added advantages. Also, the housing and food would be less expensive comparatively.
Urban people depend on stored or processed food to a large extent. They do have limited time and space to grow their own material.
Whereas in rural places, many of them grow their own vegetables and food stuff. Which if excess would be sold into towns and cities nearby.
So rural population can have access to fresh vegetables, milk and other food stuff which quite healthier than the stored ones.