Human population growth is a concern in few countries.
However, interestingly there are also countries who are worried about the decline in their population.
Those countries with heavy population explosion consider it as a threat to their economy and well-being.
While those with a decline in population worry that there will not be enough workforce to support their economy.
So either too much of it or too less of it is detrimental to the country and its well-being.
However, when both aspects are in comparison to each other, it seems heavy growth in population is too problematic.
Because it has many other associated problems.
These problems are not related to the economy of the nation alone. But, also to the environment and the society in it.
Problems of overpopulation
1. Health issues: Overpopulation i.e. high population density countries are prone to many health issues. Due to an increase in proximity between people in places of residence, the chances of spread of infections is quite higher. This is more problematic in cases of epidemics like recent Zika virus infection
2. Dirty and unhygienic surroundings:
This applies even to the public transport system and places like parks, hotels, halls etc.
So decrease in population will contribute to a cleaner and hygienic environment.
Employment is an option for one to work and earn. But the number of positions are always fixed and limited in any sort of business. So the more population, the difficult it would be to accommodate everyone into jobs. When there are no sufficient jobs and means of livelihood, the chances of criminal activities and theft tends to grow causing disturbance to the society. So, over population is prime cause of unemployment.
Poverty is mostly a state of inability to make financial movements in between people. But still, countries of the high population generally have many people in the line of poverty than those countries with less population. This can be easily seen in the current trends where people from certain countries are richest in the world yet, their countries have a number of poor people. So it will be like the rich and poor stay side by side.
Law and order situation is controlled by law monitoring personnel and also proper technical vigil. When the population is so huge, it will be quite tough to manage law and order situation as always the people to security personnel ratio has a wide gap. Also other factors due to overpopulation like unemployment, poverty will encourage citizens to neglect and violate the law.
6. Unequal education:
Due to the huge population, it would be tough for any nation to provide better education resources to all the people who wish to study. Since education is expensive, many like to perceive it at minimal cost. But due to the huge population competing for the seats, some have t0 miss the desired opportunities. So many a times a talented and intelligent candidate will be unable to perceive their education in high populous countries and try to move to other countries for better options.
7. Manipulation of democracy: People of one religion or ethnic background enhance their population drastically in comparison to another sect in the same country. In doing so they tend to vote en masse to certain political parties which encourage them. Thus population growth is a tool to exploit democracy by unethical means. Also the political parties go to any extent to appease such communities to get votes and retain power. This sometime goes against national interest. This trend can be seen in underdeveloped countries, developing countries and also in developed countries like Germany, France, U.K etc.
Effects of Overpopulation on the Environment
Human overpopulation Problems are not limited to society to alone. It can also destroy the environment around.
8. Overuse of natural resources:
Due to larger demand, there is greater demand and more is exploitation of groundwater, mines, and minerals. Less population will help avoid this overuse of natural resources.
For sake of more resources people move to towns and cities leading to further urban expansion.
9. Pollution: Pollution is harmful contamination of natural resources which can be detrimental to human health. There are different types of pollution like air, water, land etc. Due to more population, there is a high human activity like more travel, more vehicles, more release of sewage water etc. These issues will lead to enhancement in pollution.
10. Deforestation: Presence of at least 30% of forests in a country is a good sign of a natural environment. But in many countries other than in Europe, you do not find this ratio because of excess deforestation. To meet the demands of the large population, governments go for deforestation to provide housing, land for agriculture, airports, road etc. In doing so more of the natural habitat for wild animals is destroyed and they get extinct.