Human population growth is a concern for the whole world as it has a toll on the environment.
The countries suffering from heavy population explosion consider it a threat to their economy and well-being.
However, interestingly, a few European countries are also worried about the decline in their population. This is due to worry that there will not be enough workforce to support their economy.
So, either too much of it or too little of it is detrimental to the country and its well-being.
However, in the recent decade, there has been heavy growth in population due to various factors.
This leads to many problems for the economy, food supply, housing, etc. Besides, the environment and society are also negatively affected.
Problems of overpopulation
1. Health issues
- Overpopulation, i.e., high population density countries, is prone to many health issues.
- Due to an increase in proximity between people in places of residence, the chances of spreading infections are pretty higher.
- This is especially problematic in cases of epidemics like viral and bacterial infections.
- Owing to more population, the number of healthcare centers and workers is insufficient to provide health services.
- There is a decrease in the quality of health services and an increase in the medical bills in the country.
2. Dirty and unhygienic surroundings
- Humans, on average, are responsible for a certain amount of litter and dirt.
- If a locality is highly populated, it catches more dirt and also at a faster rate.
- This dirt and waste can again contribute to health issues activity, and human waste accumulates faster.
- This applies even to the public transport system and places like parks, hotels, halls, etc.
- So a decrease in population will contribute to a cleaner and hygienic environment.
- Employment is an option to work and earn. But the number of positions is always fixed and limited in any business.
- So the more population, the more difficult it would be to accommodate everyone into jobs.
- When there are no sufficient jobs and means of livelihood, the chances of criminal activities and theft tend to grow, causing disturbance to society.
- So, overpopulation is a prime cause of unemployment.
- Poverty is mostly a state of inability to make financial movements between people.
- But still, countries with a high population generally have more people in the line of poverty than those countries with less population.
- This can be easily seen in the current trends where people from certain countries are the richest, yet; their countries have many poor people.
- So it will be like the rich and poor stay side by side.
- Law and order situation is controlled by law monitoring personnel and also proper technical vigil.
- When the population is so huge, it will be quite tough to manage the law and order situation; as always, the people to security personnel ratio has a wide gap.
- Also, other factors due to overpopulation like unemployment and poverty will encourage citizens to neglect and violate the law.
6. Unequal education
- Due to the huge population, it would be tough for any nation to provide better education resources to all the people who wish to study.
- Since education is expensive, many like to perceive it at a minimal cost.
- But due to the huge population competing for the seats, some have t0 miss the desired opportunities.
- Often, a talented and intelligent candidate will be unable to perceive their education in high populous countries and try to move to other countries for better options.
7. Manipulation of democracy
- People of one religion or ethnic background enhance their population drastically compared to another sect in the same country.
- In doing so, they tend to vote en masse for certain political parties that encourage them.
- Thus population growth is a tool to exploit democracy by unethical means.
- Also, the political parties go to appease such communities to get votes and retain power.
- This sometimes goes against national interest.
- This trend can be seen even in developed countries like Germany, France, the U.K, etc.
Effects of Overpopulation on the Environment
- Human overpopulation Problems are not limited to society alone.
- It can also destroy the environment around them.
8. Overuse of natural resources
- The more the population, the more the requirement for natural resources like water, minerals, petroleum, etc.
- Due to greater demand, there is more exploitation of groundwater, mines, and minerals.
- Less population will help avoid this overuse of natural resources.
- People move to towns and cities for more resources, leading to further urban expansion.
- Pollution is a contamination of natural resources in a way that is detrimental to human health.
- There are different types of pollution, like air, water, land, etc.
- More population generates excess waste and also high human activity like more travel, vehicles, the release of sewage water, etc.
- These issues contribute to an enhancement in pollution.
- At least 30% of the land area of a country covered with the forest is a good sign of a natural environment.
- But in many countries other than Europe, you do not find this ratio because of excess deforestation.
- To meet the demands of the large population, governments go for deforestation to provide housing, land for agriculture, airports, road, etc.
- In doing so, more of the natural habitat for wild animals is destroyed, and they get extinct.
11. On animals
The excess population does not have any effect on animals as long as man is a vegetarian and does not occupy forests.
But when most of the population is dependent on animal food and habitats, animals suffer and tend to get extinguished.