Human population growth is a concern for the whole world as it has a toll on the environment.
The countries suffering with heavy population explosion consider it as a threat to their economy and well-being.
However, interestingly there are also few european countries that are worried about the decline in their population. This is due to worry that there will not be enough workforce to support their economy.
So either too much of it or too less of it is detrimental to the country and its well-being.
However, since recent decase there is heavy growth in population due to various factors.
This is leading to many problems to the economy, food supply, housing etc. Besides, the environment and the society are also negatively affected.
Problems of overpopulation
1. Health issues: Overpopulation i.e. high population density countries are prone to many health issues. Due to an increase in proximity between people in places of residence, the chances of the spread of infections are quite higher.
This is especially problematic in cases of epidemics like the viral and bacterial infections. Owing to more population, the number of healthcare centers and workers are insufficient to provide health services.
There is a decrease of quality of health services as well as heavy burden of medical bill to the country.
2. Dirty and unhygienic surroundings
Humans on average are responsible for certain amount of litter and dirt. If a locality is highly populated, it catches more dirst and also at faster rate. This dirt and waste can again contribute to health isseues activity and human waste accumulate at a faster rate.
This applies even to the public transport system and places like parks, hotels, halls, etc.
So a decrease in population will contribute to a cleaner and hygienic environment.
Employment is an option for one to work and earn. But the number of positions is always fixed and limited in any sort of business. So the more population, the difficult it would be to accommodate everyone into jobs.
When there are no sufficient jobs and means of livelihood, the chances of criminal activities and theft tend to grow causing disturbance to society. So, overpopulation is a prime cause of unemployment.
Poverty is mostly a state of inability to make financial movements in between people. But still, countries of the high population generally have many people in the line of poverty than those countries with less population.
This can be easily seen in the current trends where people from certain countries are the richest in the world yet, their countries have a number of poor people. So it will be like the rich and poor stay side by side.
Law and order situation is controlled by law monitoring personnel and also proper technical vigil. When the population is so huge, it will be quite tough to manage the law and order situation as always the people to security personnel ratio has a wide gap.
Also other factors due to overpopulation like unemployment, poverty will encourage citizens to neglect and violate the law.
6. Unequal education
Due to the huge population, it would be tough for any nation to provide better education resources to all the people who wish to study. Since education is expensive, many like to perceive it at a minimal cost. But due to the huge population competing for the seats, some have t0 miss the desired opportunities. So many times a talented and intelligent candidate will be unable to perceive their education in high populous countries and try to move to other countries for better options.
7. Manipulation of democracy
People of one religion or ethnic background enhance their population drastically in comparison to another sect in the same country. In doing so they tend to vote en masse to certain political parties that encourage them. Thus population growth is a tool to exploit democracy by unethical means. Also, the political parties go to any extent to appease such communities to get votes and retain power. This sometimes goes against national interest. This trend can be seen in underdeveloped countries, developing countries and also in developed countries like Germany, France, U.K, etc.
Effects of Overpopulation on the Environment
Human overpopulation Problems are not limited to society alone. It can also destroy the environment around them.
8. Overuse of natural resources:
Due to larger demand, there is greater demand and more is the exploitation of groundwater, mines, and minerals. Less population will help avoid this overuse of natural resources.
For the sake of more resources, people move to towns and cities leading to further urban expansion.
9. Pollution: Pollution is harmful contamination of natural resources which can be detrimental to human health. There are different types of pollution like air, water, land, etc. Due to more population, there is a high human activity like more travel, more vehicles, more release of sewage water, etc. These issues will lead to enhancement in pollution.
10. Deforestation: The presence of at least 30% of forests in a country is a good sign of a natural environment. But in many countries other than in Europe, you do not find this ratio because of excess deforestation. To meet the demands of the large population, governments go for deforestation to provide housing, land for agriculture, airports, road, etc. In doing so more of the natural habitat for wild animals is destroyed and they get extinct.