Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth.
But over population is a problem limited to few countries. In some countries less population is a cause of worry.
However, over population has a deleterious effects on environment due to current life style.
There would be rampant exploitation of natural resources, excess human waste accumulation, chances of epidemics etc.
Besides, it would also lead to socioeconomic problems like poverty, malnutrition, violence, corruption etc.
Human overpopulation occurs if the number of people in a group exceeds the carrying capacity of the region occupied by that group.
10 Causes of population growth
1.Better health care leads to Decline in the Death Rate:
Reduced mortality rate is one of the leading causes of overpopulation. Due to medical advancements, many diseases could be cured now. Owing to advances in both preventive and curative medicine, diseases have either been eradicated or have more effective treatments now. There are effective ways to control epidemics and there are better measures to treat critical health ailments, thus leading to a drop in death rates.
Developments in medicine have led to reduced mortality and increase in the average life expectancy of humans. Infant mortality rates are very low and cases of deaths during childbirth are less frequent now. Good prenatal care has improved the chances of survival for both the mother and the baby.
2. Rise in the Birth Rate:
Due to advancement in medicine, the average birth rate has gone up. Due to various fertility treatments available today, there are effective solutions to infertility problems, which increases chances of conception. Due to modern medicine, pregnancies are safer. In case of conception after a fertility treatment, there are chances of a multiple pregnancy, further contributing to increasing birth rate. This further contributes to overpopulation. Early marriages also contribute to population growth as getting married at an early age increases the chances of having more children. And especially so with the uneducated class where family planning is not adopted.
3. Lack of Education/ awareness
Illiteracy is another important factor that contributes to overpopulation. Those lacking education fail to understand the need to curb population growth. Modern methods of birth control and family planning don’t reach the illiterate sections of society. Furthermore, due to lack of awareness there is resistance in adopting such methods. The illiterate are unable to understand what impact overpopulation can have. The educated class can make more responsible decisions about marriage and childbirth.
4. Cultural Influences:
The concept of birth control is not widely accepted. Adopting birth control measures is considered taboo in certain cultures. Some cultures foster beliefs where marrying at a certain age or having a certain number of children is considered to be ideal. In some cultures there is a pressure from the family and society to have children. Social norms influence decisions of starting and extending one’s family. In cultures where a woman’s role is considered to be that of a child-bearer, large families become the norm.
5. Lack of Family Planing:
Most developing nations have large number of people who are illiterate, live below the poverty line and have little or no knowledge about family planning. Getting their children married at an early age increase the chances of producing more kids. Those people are unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation and lack of ignorance prompts them to avoid family planning measures.
6. Religious propagation: It is believed that some religious preachers encourage to have more children. They propagate that god would provide for them and hence they should not stop having children or adopt family planning. This is a sort of selfish motive to enhance their religious population. Hence, you can notice countries with certain major religions have more population.
7. Desire to manipulate democracy or demography:
The above said method is also used to encourage the growth of the population of their sect. This is seen in few instances where, the ratio of children to parents is very high is some communities. Though it is not appropriate to mention them here. Recent news of ethnic cleansing etc. throw a light on how the population was manipulated to get dominance. It was reported that girls of very low age were mother to a two or more kids. Even you can notice politician argue against and in support if immigrants of particular religion or group specifically.
8. Immigration/ migration: Population of a state or country would rise not only due to enhanced birth rate or decline in death rate but also due to enhanced migration.
In the recent past we have noticed many people migration to other countries for survival. This way the host country population goes up. Even these immigrants tend to enhance their community population by having more children.
In few countries politicians intentionally encourage such illegal migration for vote bank. They give them shelter and also provide identity card to enjoy as natural citizens.
9. Desire for social support: A man who have more children considers to have better strength socially. Even if he wish take up a work or contract, he would involve all his children and get it done. Also since he has a big family with more number of children and their families, he could dominate others with less familial strength or support. So having more children is an intention to have better social support or dominance.
10. Region based variation in perception: We can notice that western countries have less population than eastern countries. This is because some people in the west do not like to take responsibility of kids upbringing etc. While, in the east, children and family are considered as an asset and therefore people are ready to take responsibility.